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Registered Office
UNNATI Organization for Development Education
G-1, 200 Azad Society,
Ahmedabad 380 015.
Gujarat (India)
 
Tel : +91-79-26746145, 26733296
Fax : +91-79-26743752
Email : psu_unnati@unnati.org
Website : www.unnati.org
Events
The Fourth Ashok Memorial Lecture, Deepa Sonpal
 
August 12, 2016
The Fourth Ashok Memorial lecture was delivered by Deepa Sonpal, Programme Coordinator on August 12, 2016, at a function organised by the Shanta memorial Rehabilitation centre (SMRC), Bhuhaneshwar. Among the other guests present were Ms Anita Agnihotri, IAS, Principal Secretary, Govt. of India, MSJE; Ms Mansi Nimbhai, IAS, Director, Govt of Orissa, SSEPD; Mr Xerses Sidhwa, Director, Health Office, USAID, India; Mr Arup Dasgupta Deputy GM, SBI; Mr Deepak Sauja, Business Head, Odisha Circle, Vodafone and Dr Asha Hans and Ms Reena Mohanty, SMRC.
 
 
Download 4th Ashok Hans Memorial Lecture
 
VDP Training
 
January, 2016
Training of PRIs, Government Functionaries and Citizen Leaders on Village development Plans in Poshina and Vijaynagaar talukas of Sabarkantha district in Gujarat.
 
 
Two trainings on Village Development Plans were conducted for Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs), government functionaries and citizen leaders for two talukas in Gujarat during January 2016. The objectives of the training were :
  • Familiarization about the process of Village Development Plan under Intensive Participatory Planning Exercise–II and financial devolution as proposed by 14th Finance Commission.
  • Develop understanding on the reasons for poverty and exclusion and build a linkage with the poor quality of delivery of services
  • To help build a vision for developing a model panchayat
The first training was conducted at Poshina taluka on January 16, 2016 in which 25 PRI Representatives and government officials including Taluka Development Officer and Assistant Programme Officer (MGNREGA) and 33 citizen leaders participated in the training. The training at Vijaynagar taluka was carried out on January 19, 2016 in which 26 PRIs, 18 talatis and 25 other government functionaries including the TDO, Mamlatdar, NRLM and watershed staff, District Development officer and Director DRDA and 28 citizen leaders participated.
 
Participatory Assessment of Basic Services
 
October- December, 2015
Poshina and Vijaynagar talukas of Sabarkantha district, Gujarat
 
 
'Participatory Assessment of Basic Services' related to – primary education, health care and social protection and security was conducted during October, November and December 2015. Consultations were held with a total of 1542 members of the community of which 741 were women, 801 men and 27 persons with disabilities from 53 falias/ villages in 28 panchayats. Discussions were held on the efficiency and effectiveness of delivery of services and schemes at the community level related to:
  • Primary schools – scholarships, mid day meal
  • Aanganwadi – Integrated Child Development Scheme – nutrition and immunisation for children between 0-6 years, pregnant and lactating women and adolescents
  • Social protection and security – old age pension, niradhar old age pension, widow pension; disability identity card, disability pension, palak mata pita, manav kalya and manav garima yojana; MGNREGA and Indira Awas Yojana.
At the community level actionable points were discussed and responsibilities have been taken up for improving the quality and timely delivery of these services.
 
Orientation on Mainstreaming Disability for inclusive Development
 
September 2 – 4, 2015
Unnati’s training center at Jodhpur, Rajasthan.
 
 
A three day’s training program on mainstreaming disability for inclusive development was organized by Unnati and German Leprosy Relief Association (GLRA) at Unnati’s training center at Jodhpur, Rajasthan. This training program was organised primarily for the partners under the project ‘Improving Access to Information of Public Schemes’ supported by the European Union in India.  In this training total 25 participants – middle level development functionaries from seven partner supported by EU and one partner associated with Unnati over a long period, Foundation for Ecological Security participated.

The broad objective of this training programme was to enable partner organisations adopt an inclusive approach to address specific barriers to enhance the participation of persons/women with disabilities in decision making process. The specific objectives of the training programme were:
  • Orient the participants on disability as a social construct
  • Build a conceptual understanding on the paradigm shift from the charity and medical model to the social model of disability
  • Develop an understanding on the different kinds of barriers that limit the participation of persons/women with different types of disabilities
  • Build understanding on the legislation and policy, both present and upcoming, related to disability
  • Develop understanding on mainstreaming disability in development process through case example; and
  • Evolve specific strategies for effective delivery of public services for the person/women with disabilities in the on-going developmental activities/programs.
The facilitators of this training program were Mr. Binoy Acharya and  Ms. Deepa Sonpal from Unnati, Mr. Gaurab Sen from GLRA, Ms. Nandani Rawal from Blind People’s Association, Ms. Amba Salekar from Equals and Mr. P.K. Pincha who was the former Chief Commissioner for persons with Disabilities.
 
Soochna Swabhiman Yatra
 
Campaign for Access to Information on Public Programs and Entitlements with Dignity.
Badmer, Rajasthan, March 16- April 3, 2015
 
 
Public (government) programs and schemes whether it is on health care, care of the pregnant and lactating mothers, institutional deliver, primary education including quality of teaching, mid-day-meal, free text books and uniform, scholarship, pensions for old persons, persons with disabilities, and many others contribute in strengthening the survival strategy of the poor families. They can make the best use of these programs and lead an economically secure life with dignity if available with ease and in real time. However, many a times, the poor and the vulnerable are not able to access the public programs as they do not have the right information and the application process is complex and time consuming. They either have to use exploitative intermediaries or expensive market mechanisms to avail the program benefits.

Information is perhaps the most powerful tool for the people in a democracy. If one is informed fully then she can assert her rights and access her entitlements. A Suchna Swabhiman Yatra (Campaign for Information on Entitlements and Access with Dignity) was conceived by UNNATI under the EU supported project on “Access to Information on Public Programs). It was carried out during March 16 – April 3, 2015 in two trails covering 72 remote habitations and dhanis of 30 gram panchayats in Kalyanpur, Patodi and Sindhri blocks of Barmer district of Rajasthan. The Suchna Swabhiman Yatra aimed to provide information about various government schemes and programs using popular audio, visual and audio-visual formats. It helped the excluded people to voice the problems that they were facing in accessing their entitlements openly and without fear. It provided the opportunity to the PRI representatives, service providers, government functionaries and citizens to engage for ensuring the ‘last mile’ reach of public programs. 6421 people (female – 2557, male – 3212, persons with disabilities – 30) participated in the yatra. 188 panchayat representatives and government functionaries also participated. 90 citizen leaders supported actively in various stages of the campaign. During campaign 332 cases of Pensions and Insurance, 41 cases of Social security for Unorganised sector workers, 18 cases related to PDS, 78 cases related to IAY sanction and payment, 44 cases related to functioning of primary education, 23 cases related to child care facility, immunisation, ANC and PNC care, 196 cases related to electricity connection and 14 others were identified and taken up with the relevant authority for redressal
 
2-day Capacity Development Workshops for Std. IX English teachers of Scheduled Areas of Gujarat
 
September 16-21, 2013
Dada Bhagwan Satsthanak, Kelanpuri, Vadodara
 
Participants of one batch from 7 districts of Gujarat at a Capacity Development Workshop
 
As a part of the 'English Language Enhancement Program' for schools in scheduled areas of Gujarat, three 2-day Capacity Development Workshops were organized for Std. IX English teachers. 134 teachers of 208 schools from 15 districts of Gujarat participated in these workshops held in 3 batches

Experienced facilitators who have developed a SATCOM programme for English Language for these schools interacted with the teachers and answered their queries related to teaching and learning of English. The workshops used participatory and experiential methodology. Participants learnt how to teach the Std. IX textbook effectively to enable the learners to use English to express their own ideas and feelings as well as get good marks in the examination. Inputs were provided on communicative activities and use of open ended questions for language production, classroom management, using technology for teaching and professional development and lesson planning. Participants worked in groups and prepared innovative plans to teach the textbook lessons in an interesting manner. An online community for teachers has been created for ongoing discussion on issues related to teaching and learning English. Teachers also discussed about the 'English Language Mela' to be organised at the end of 2013. The Mela will be organized for over 200 schools at 10 different locations in Gujarat to exchange creative ideas for exploring and using English. It will also provide tribal students an opportunity to interact with others in English and enjoy using the language. Thirty DVDs of the Std. IX WELCOME English SATCOM programme were distributed to the teachers as resource material.

I learnt various new techniques to be used in the classroom to teach vocabulary, grammar and lessons in interesting ways to students. We need more such input at regular interval to keep ourselves updated. I look forward to attend the 2nd phase of workshops, shared Ms. Aysha Makrani (English Teacher, Model School, Chhotaudepur).

Gaurav Parmar (English teacher, Sainik School, Kherancha) says, Capacity Development Workshop was a wonderful experience, finding so many fresh ideas from our colleagues. I appreciate the effort of facilitators, organisers and Tribal Development Department for running such a useful program.

Feedback has been collected from the teachers and based on the expressed needs, a second series of Capacity Development Workshops will be organized after two months. In the meanwhile, teachers have chosen assignments that they will do in their schools. The problems faced and the possible solutions for effectively implementing these assignments will be shared in the next workshop.
 
 
1-day Orientations for Std. IX English Teachers on the English Language Enhancement Programme (2013-14) for schools in scheduled areas of Gujarat
 
July 24-26, 2013,  August 5-7, 2013
 
English Teachers of Std. IX during Orientation workshop held at EMRS, Tilakwada, Narmada
 
Unnati Organisation for Development Education, Ahmedabad with support of Tribal Development Department organised 1-day Orientation programmes for Std. IX English Teachers at 6 locations. The event was organised under the English Language Enhancement (ELE) Programme for schools in scheduled areas of Gujarat.

164 participants from 15 districts of Gujarat participated in the above orientations at the following locations:
EMRS Pardi, Valsad on July 24, 2013
EMRS Mota, Surat on July 25, 2013
EMRS Tilakwada, Narmada on July 26, 2013
Sainik School Kherancha, Sabarkantha on August 5, 2013
EMRS Kharedi, Dahod on August 6, 2013
EMRS Waghodiya, Vadodara on August 7, 2013

Objectives of the Orientations:
  • Share the objectives, key components and logistics of the ELE programme events for 2013-14 and their schedules
  • Discuss and finalise the logistics of the ELE programme
  • Discuss the role of the English teacher in enhancing English language in their schools, challenges and how these can be overcome
  • Acquaint teachers with the monitoring and support in ELE programme
  • Learn about experiences of teachers of the previous relay of Std IX programme (Feb-Apr 2013)
Teachers actively participated in these workshops. They were acquainted with the key components of the programme which included the SATCOM based WELCOME English programme, capacity development initiatives for English teachers, English Language melas and above all, efforts to create opportunities for the use of English in schools. Teachers were informed of the logistics, discussed their role, and provided valuable input for Capacity Development Workshops to be organised for them as well as for the English Language Melas to be organised at the district level.
 
 
Consultation on Ensuring Accountable and Responsive Public Services Delivery for the Marginalised
 
April 25, 2013
 
 
Access to government programs on education, health care, child care, social security, Public Distribution System (PDS) etc. are very important for a dignified life for poor people. These government programs, if implemented well, can bolster and sustain economic and social change, poverty reduction and improvement in living standards.

The rights based approach seeks to make the duty-bearers (primarily the State) accountable to the claim-holders (its citizens) for protecting and promoting human rights. Citizens have a dual role, both as `claim holders’ and also as `duty bearers’; they can demand their rights as claim holders, and they can also play a decisive role through various actions to ensure that their demands are fulfilled. Access to government programs can be improved when people through their collective strength and forums can hold the service delivery institutions accountable. At the same time, importance of enabling the delivery agencies or the administrative mechanisms to reach to the community and deliver in an accountable manner cannot be undermined. Several organisations have tried to develop and use mechanisms and tools for making information available, creation of empowered demand and enabling accountable and responsive basic services delivery.

Objective : Develop a shared understanding on mechanisms and tools to increase access of the marginalised groups to public service programs.

Participants : 48 participants from NGOs, government and academic institutes

Panel 1: Mechanisms for Accountable and Responsive Basic Services Delivery (chaired by Lata Kachwaha, SURE) included experiences in implementation and issues and achievements of the following Acts and programmes:
  1. Rajasthan Lok Sewa Guarantee Adhiniyam or Rajasthan Guaranteed Delivery of Public Services Act 2011. (Section Officer, Prashasanik Sudhar Vibhag)
  2. Right to Hearing Act 2012 (RTI Manch)
  3. Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana in Rajasthan (State Nodal Agency, Rajasthan)
  4. MGNREGA Samvad (Renuka Pamecha)

A 22 minute documentary (produced by Unnati) on the process of Community Based Monitoring piloted in 50 villages of western Rajasthan with traditionally marginalized dalit women to facilitate an empowered demand for their entitlements was shown post lunch.

Panel 2: Creation of Empowered Demand (chaired by Aditi Mehta, ACS, Department of Art and Culture, formerly Principal Secretary, Department of Social Justice and Empowerment):
  1. Community monitoring of health services under NRHM in Rajasthan and its impact (Center for Health Equity, Prayas)
  2. Challenges and issues of malnutrition in Rajasthan and the status and requirements of nutrition centers (Consultant, Gender, Youth and Governance)
  3. Experience in facilitating community monitoring of Right to Education (RTE) entitlements and quality of education in primary schools (Pratham)
  4. Social security services and issues of women from the minority community (Vividha)

Some learnings from the consultation:
  • Independence of the facilitating organisation is a necessity for institutionalization of any social accountability mechanism, whether social audit or community monitoring
  • There is need for correct and evidence based information
  • Simplification of steps and formats for information collection, verification and dissemination and role clarity are key for increasing the scale of social accountability efforts
  • Findings need to be communicated in a non-confrontational manner. This will increase the confidence of the people to raise their voice and provide scope to the governing and the delivery mechanism to take corrective action
  • Continuous consultations are required at different levels to strengthen the system in an enabling manner
  • Facilitating organisations also need to concentrate on ways to strengthen the program apart from playing the role of watchdogs

The consultation covered diverse services and entitlements and it was concluded that various mechanisms and tools can be used to stimulate demand side empowerment and supply side responsiveness and accountability. Focus should be placed on the needs of the marginalized in the community and an information strategy geared to penetrate, foster association and engender a sense of being entitled to the service as a citizen. Rights based Acts, especially, RTI, Right to Hearing or Guaranteed Delivery of Public Services Act are windows of opportunity and provide an enabling environment requiring innovative strategies for information dissemination and implementation as well as appropriate vigilance to be effective.
 
 
Training of Trainers on Developing Accessible Tools on Situation Analysis and Capacity Assessment by Disabled Persons Organisations (DPOs)
 
April 1-4, 2013
 
 
Training of Trainers on Developing Accessible Tools on Situation Analysis and Capacity Assessment by Disabled Persons Organisations (DPOs), was organised during April 1-4, 2013, at FMC, Bengaluru for the participants deputed by the respective organisations. The objectives of the ToT were to:
 
  1. Developing understanding of the various participatory tools on Situation Analysis and Capacity Assessment
  2. Understanding its applicability for DPOs in the changing context
  3. Suggestions for making the tools accessible for persons with visual impairment and other disabilities: hearing impaired, cerebral palsy and orthopedic disabilities
 
Each organisation had deputed participants for the ToT and the respurce persons for the programme were Mr Venkatesh Balakrishna, Founder Director, ADD India; Dr Victor John Corderio, World Blind Union; Prof Neharika Vohra, IIMA; Dr Yogesh Kumar and Mr Venkatesh Prasad Samarthan, Dr Harish Vashistha, Mr Binoy Acharya, Ms Geeta Sharma, Ms Deepa Sonpal and Ms Sandipa Nelson.

The participating organisations will go back and conduct three workshops with the core committee members of their organisations:
  • Perspective building and situation analysis (SA)
  • Building effective institutions and DPOs
  • Self-capacity assessment (CA) of their respective DPO
The above activities will be conducted in the period of May – June 203 and be extensively documented with the support from facilitations deputed to each DPO.
 
Inception Workshop on Development of Accessible Tools on Situation Analysis (SA) and Capacity Assessment (CA) by Disabled People’s Organisations
 
February 14-15, 2013
 
 
Since October 2012, an 18 months project on Towards Developing a BPO/DPO led Pedagogy to Facilitate the Process of Social Change has been initiated. This project was sanctioned by Sightsavers, UK through a global call for proposals. This project aims to work with eight partners: Blind Persons Organisations (BPOs)/ Disabled Persons Organisations (DPOs)/ NGOs in India and develop accessible tools especially for enhancing the participation of persons with visual and hearing impairment, persons with cerebral palsy and locomotor disabilities.

An Inception Workshop on Development of Accessible Tools on Situation Analysis (SA) and Capacity Assessment (CA) by Disabled People’s Organisations was organised during Ahmedabad, February 14-15, 2013. The objective of this workshop was to develop a common understanding on relevance and application of identified frameworks, tools and techniques on SA and CA. In this workshop the respective heads of organisations from 7 NGOs/ BPOs/ DPOs participated.

  1. ADD India supporting ATTD a DPO federation in Tamil Nadu represented by Ms. Jaishree Mukherjee (Executive Director. ADD India)
  2. Sama Foundation supported KARO a DPO in Karnataka (Mr Paul Ramanathan, Executive Director, Sama Foundation)
  3. Rashtraya Viklang Manch – in two states Rajsthan and Madhya Pradesh (Mr Sonu Golkar, Secretary and Dr Victor Corderio founder member)
  4. Sanchar supported DRG, a DPO in West Bengal (Ms Tulika Das, Director, Sanchar)
  5. National Association for the Blind, Sabarkatha district branch, Gujarat (Dr Bhaskar Mehta, Vice President, NAB, India and ms Praveena Mehta, Joint Secretary, Nab, Sabarkatha)
  6. Disability Advocacy Group, Gujarat (Ms Neeta Panchal, Secretary, Mr Parag Panchal and Ms Kinneri Desai, members)
 
An advisory group of eminent experts on Organisational development has also been formed to guide and provide input to this research. This team comprises of Prof T V Rao (Adjunct professor) IIM-A; Prof Neharika Vohra, Professor, IIM-A, Dr Rajesh Tandon and Dr Kaustuv Bandhoyapadhya, PRIA, New Delhi; Dr Yogesh Kumar, Samarthan Centre for Development Support, Bhopal and Mr Binoy Acharya, Director, Unnati.

Other participants present at the meeting who are part of this project were Dr Harish Vashistha, Senior OD Consultant and Prof Nivedita Kothiyal, IRMA, Anand. Members from Unnati present at this meeting were; Ms Deepa Sonpal. Programme Coordinator,; Ms Geeta Sharma,, Programme Coordinator, Ms Sandipa Nelson, Ms Dharmishta Halpati and Mr Laxmansinh Rathod, Mr. Manish Parmar and Mr Sardarsinh Rathod as support staff

In this workshop the identified tools on SA and CA were shared and discussions on how these could be made accessible and be suitably adapted in the coming ToT organised for two representatives of from each organisation and the modalities of operation in the next few months and the plan of action.
 
National Consultation on Safety of Houses Under Indira Awas Yojana in Disaster Prone Areas
 
December 21, 2012
Development Alternative World Headquarters, B-32, TARA Crescent, Qutub Institutional Area,
New Delhi.
 
National consultation on Safety of Houses under Indira Awas Yojana in Disaster Prone Areas was organised by Unnati with knowledge support from Knowledge Works. It was hosted by Development Alternatives. This was organised to share the results of a short pilot study in six states (Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Uttrakhand, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh) covering of 100 households in each state to understand the disaster resilience of IAY houses.

28 participants from different national and state level technical institutions, NGOs, INGOs, financial institutions, insurance agencies and representative from Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) participated in the consultation. Key findings of the study on safety aspects were shared and in the respond the participants gives their inputs to improve the data analysis and presentation of the study. The important issues emerge from the study and consultation were to revised unit cost of the scheme for better material use and construction, enabling mechanisms to provide technical support and monitoring and linkage with the affordable insurance schemes to reduce the risk of houses. This effort will make at IAY houses more disaster resist and the beneficiaries using it will be safer in the context of specific hazards.
Strategic Review Meeting
 
12th December, 2012
UNNATI Coordinating Office, 216, Azad Society, Ahmedabad
 
UNNATI team members interacted with Dr. Rajesh Tandon, President PRIA (New Delhi) and Prof. Budd Hall, School of Public Administration, University of Victoria, Canada on December 12, 2012. The staff mainly discussed about the present challenges and strategic options/ directions for NGOs and support organisations like UNNATI. Dr Rajesh Tandon and Prof. Budd hall are Co-Chairs, UNESCO Chair of Community Based Research and Social Responsibility in Higher Education.
 
 
Thematic Training on Decentralised Governance and Social Accountability For Mid-Level Professionals and Senior Functionaries of NGOs (Jodhpur)
 
September 24 -28, 2012
 
 
27 representatives of 16 NGOs from Gujarat and Rajasthan States participated in the five day training on Decentralised Governance and Social Accountability. In the recent years, the strategies for poverty reduction and social development have provided central importance to governance and institutional reforms. The World Development Report (WDR) 2000-01 emphasized that a governance centered development has three basic features - promote opportunities, facilitate empowerment of the poor to participate in the decision making process and enhancing security for vulnerability reduction.

A vibrant and developed society requires strong governing institutions and strong civil society. Governance cannot be strengthened without citizens and vice-versa. The state and citizens are joint actors of development process where there is no mutual suspicion and fear of people toward the state. Promotion of people centered tools of social accountability like Jan Sunvai (public hearing), report card (assessment of basic services) etc promotes active and responsive citizens. The governing institutions can effectively interact with all sections of citizens by practicing democracy, accountability, social justice and more so, decentralization. Decentralised governance is institutionalized in India in the form of Nagarpalikas and Panchayats (largest representative democracy) that have a great potential to closely interact with the citizens and remain responsive to their needs and aspirations. The spirit of the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments and Part IX of the Constitution is to enable PRIs and urban local bodies to function as units of local self-governance, with an emphasis on empowering them with a functional mandate, giving them a degree of autonomy, and imparting self-sufficiency through fiscal transfers, taxation powers and tax assignments (Raghunandan, 2007).

NGOs have an important role in strengthening the public domain or the public political space wherein citizens feel able and entitled to influence authorities, a space that maintains and re-enforces public belonging and identity and enables the integrative collective action that constitutes democracy. Retaining substantial powers in the public domain is required for decentralization to produce a democratic dividend in the form of increased equity, efficiency and development. The training for mid-level and senior professionals is placed in this context and endeavors to help them understand the theme, know about and develop the skill to practice and facilitate people centered social accountability tools and reflect on their roles.

The training used participatory pedagogy and the main sessions were as follows:
  1. Understanding vulnerability and social exclusion
  2. Reflection on governance and good governance including various characteristics of good governance
  3. Decentralization, concepts and types
  4. Devolution, Status, Activity Mapping
  5. Rights based Acts and Good Governance – Role of CSOs
  6. Social Accountability concepts and tools

Participants were able to recognize that the success of social accountability initiatives did not depend so much on the method or tool applied, but the processes of social mobilization, of voice and agency, and of advocacy and the direct engagement and negotiations in the public sphere. Methods and tools are important ingredients but they are instruments that should be selected according to the purpose and the capacity of users. They need to be adapted to and acceptable in a given context, taking into account cultural, social, political, economic and educational factors. Major learnings resulted from reflection on the role of the civil society organizations. Participants realized that enactments like Right to Information 2005, Rajasthan Guarantee of Public Services Act 2011, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2006 (MGNREGA) and policy guidelines about pro-active disclosure, timely grievance redressal, people’s committees like the School Management Committee (SMC), Village Water, Sanitation, Health and Nutrition Committee (VWSHNC) or Village Vigilance and Monitoring Committee (VVMC) provided an enabling environment for Social Accountability and citizen’s engagement in planning and monitoring of programs. Despite these the programs and their information did not reach the people, owing to social exclusion and lack of downward accountability, demand and supply side bottlenecks were created in program implementation leading to last mile delivery issues in public services. Voiceless common citizen remained content to live in a beneficiary-benefactor relationship. So, civil society organization needed to utilize the enabling provisions for strengthening the voice of the people. Rather it was necessary to develop systems and mechanisms that took into account the usual reasons for accountability failures and endeavored to create a co-governance space whereby governance structure could be facilitated to work in close coordination with citizen groups and institutions.

Efforts were required for creating an environment for transparency and accountability with empowered people’s voice and the aim to check compliance and make delivery mechanism effective; not only to hunt for corruption. They should endeavor to maintain their independence and generate evidence based information. Non-confrontational manner of sharing of findings provided more space to governance institutions to take redressal action, though this did not refute the need for activism and strategic use of media in various respects. Continuous consultations at different levels are useful in strengthening the system in an enabling manner. A very important role for civil society organizations was to look for ways to strengthen the program apart from serving as watchdogs. All participant organizations were practicing social accountability in various forms and innovations and made action plans to take the process forward at their organizational level.
 
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