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Social Inclusion and Empowerment
Civic Leadership Governance and Social Accountability
Social Determinants of Disaster Risk Reduction
Current Projects
Social Determinants of Disaster Risk Reduction « Programmes
An Action Research Project supported by GIDM, Govt. of Gujarat
A project for a preparation of Industrial Hazards Management Plan (IHMP) has been initiated by UNNATI through action research methodology in close association with Gujarat Institute of Disaster Management (GIDM), Government of Gujarat, Gandhinagar. The projectfocused to develop a framework and template by directly working in one of the industrial estates. Vatva industrial estate was taken up as the pilot site with multi stakeholders participation for the implementation of common response strategy for anticipated chemical industrial disasters. Vatva Chemical Industrial estate was taken up under the study to develop a framework covering both on-site and off-site locations and issues. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC), Vatva is one of the oldest industrial clusters in Gujarat state. It was established in the year of 1967 with the creation of GIDC. In the initial time, these industrial clusters were established at remote locations away from the cities. But with the increase in migration to cities like Ahmedabad, residential colonies, mostly of the migrant working class population are established in the vicinity of GIDC. Over the passing time Vatva GIDC has grown in chemical production units, especially in dyes and their intermediates. Vatva is prone to various chemical and industrial hazards including fire, gas leakage and onsite accidents.

This initiative aims to develop appropriate strategy and contents for awareness generation in both on-site and off-site risks of chemical disasters. The methodology adopted for the preparation of the template for industrial hazard management plan was based on assessment of hazard, vulnerability, risk and capacity of the Vatva industrial estate. Capacity building, awareness generation and preparation of training module, air monitoring followed the primary HVRC assessment. Final plan template was shared followed by a meeting for developing industry specific plan for emergency arising out of storage and processing of hazardous chemicals.
Following were the major steps which were included in the methodology of the project
  • Mapping of the influence zone
  • Identifying the key stakeholders to be involved in the template preparation and execution
  • Identifying the potential affected communities to be affected by any unfortunate incident involving major leaks/spill/fire/explosion of the hazardous chemical
  • Collection of primary information from on-site and off-site pertaining to hazards and risks imposed by Vatva industrial estate for storing and processing large quantities of chemicals which are hazardous in nature
  • Identifying major accident hazard industries and classifying all the information collected according to their capacity to store and process numbers of hazardous chemicals
  • Preparation of the hazard, vulnerability, risk and capacity assessment report including analyzed criteria of on-site and off-site components of Vatva industrial cluster
  • Monitoring of air for producing quantifiable reference to the HVRC assessment findings
  • Preparation of capacity building modules and assessment report through interactions, focused group discussions, expert interviews and meetings, trainings, IEC material preparation and emergency mock exercise
  • Producing a Vatva industrial cluster specific plan for dissemination of information to different industrial units situated in the industrial cluster
  • Disseminating information related to off-site risks to the focused community areas.
The scope of this project was envisioned to have a cluster specific institutional and physical planning focusing on the risks imposed by the chemical industries on surrounding population and environment in the form of pilot template which could have been applied to the different chemical industrial cluster of the Gujarat state.
The project was implemented in consultation with various stakeholders like:
  • Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA), Gandhinagar
  • Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) Ahmedabad
  • Director Industrial Safety and Health
  • Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad
  • Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad
  • Ahmedabad Fire Department, Ahmedabad
  • Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), Ahmedabad
  • Vatva Industries Association, Vatva, Ahmedabad
  • Gujarat Environment Services Co-op Society Limited, Vatva, Ahmedabad
  • Indian Institute of Public Health – Public Health Foundation of India, Gandhinagar
  • GVK-Emergency Management and Research Institute, Ahmedabad
  • Go Green Mechanisms Pvt Ltd, Ahmedabad
  • Indian Red Cross Society, Ahmedabad
  • Community Areas Representatives – Machchu Nagar, Induchacha Nagar, SLM Nagar, KushabhauThakrey Nagar – Vatva, Ahmedabad
  • Sahyog Charitable Trust, Ahmedabad
Some of the key steps and the outcome are described below:
  • 1. Mapping of Influence Zone: Almost 500 chemical industries that have been located in GIDC Vatva are mobilised to collect information regarding their production system (hazardous chemicals, processes and equipment) and capacities to curb any small to major incident which has potential to damage human and other resources. As a part to addressing the off-site hazards and to develop an understanding related to them, most vulnerable off-site community clusters were identified. Five community clusters namely SLM, Navapura, Railway colony, Machchu Nagar and Trikampura came out to be most significant for the study because of their physical, social and occupational attributes checked against the objective of mapping off-site risks. With the same objective, two ESIC and one AMC health clinics in the nearby regions were contacted and a random sample of the patients coming to these facilities was studied.
  • 2. Hazard, risk, vulnerability and capacity (HRVC) analysis: Hazard, Vulnerability, Risk and Capacity analysis was done following analysing the collected information through triangulation method. The HVRC analysis includes information collected from various secondary as well as primary sources. The main objective of this analysis was to monitor the prevailing risks (onsite and offsite) due to the large amount of storage and processing of hazardous chemicals. Phase 1 and Phase 2 out of 4 Phases are the worst affected (highest ranked according to NFPA ranking methodology) due to their location, chemical storage and processes. Most of the Toxic + Corrosive + Flammable are transported (from and to), stored and processed in these phases. On the offsite the three community clusters which are at higher risk is a)Machchu Nagar Community cluster b) SLM Community cluster and c) Trikampura Community cluster.
    Methodology applied for HVRC was mix of survey, focus group discussion, technical mapping and review of secondary source information. HVRC assessment comprise of three stages:
    • (i) Consultation with experts on objectives and relevance on project, literature review, secondary data collection related to Vatva GIDC, transect walk of industrial premise, consultation with VIA on finalizing data collection format, finalization of the format keeping into account information on types of chemicals storage, usage, transport, key safety equipment to response to any emergency, capacity of human resource etc. was also included in the format.
    • (ii) Primary data collection of 500 Industrial Units of Vatva done, out of 500 units 350 units were visited out team to get the idea about basic risk, vulnerability, capacity of the units. Apart from chemical units, information of three local health centres (LG hospital, Government clinic for industrial labour (ESIC clinic) and Kashiba Hospital were collected. Consultations with communities residing at vulnerable sites were done.
    • (iii) Based on the first two steps, analysis of data, triangulation to define the risk, vulnerability and capacity of the Vatva industrial estate was completed.
  • 3. Formation of Inter Agency Coordination Group: An inter-agency coordination group had been formed to seek advise and feedback on the action research process. A consultation with diverse stakeholders as mentioned above was held on February 26, 2015 at GIDM. This consultation has proved to be very significant as it has verified the process of research wherein every participant had given their inputs. 27 representatives participated from GSDMA, GPCB, DISH, Bharuch Collector, Bharuch; DPMC Ankleshwar shared their experiences on action initiated on similar issues.
  • 4. Preparation of comprehensive Industrial Hazard Management Plan (IHMP): Apart from risk mapping and HVRC analysis, the IHMP covers Incident Response System, Task Forces and their functions, list of tools and equipment, key mitigation measures which can reduce the risk. The internal audit of chemical processing plants in Vatva GIDC is put into the plan. it will help the Vatva Industrial Association (VIA), apex body of all the industry owners to regularly monitor the risk pertaining to chemical industries. The plan will be implements by VIA.
  • 5. Regular Monitoring of Air and Ground Water: Supporting the secondary information collected from Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) Gandhinagar, a primary activity for air and water monitoring was initiated at four offsite locations. The data analysis suggests that there are no major contaminations in air and water duet the good preventive measures by Vatva GIDC.
  • 6. Information and Communication Package preparation: A set of information, education and communication material (booklet and set of posters) were produced for the training and awareness on industrial risk. The material was focused more on specific most hazardous 16 types of chemicals being used in Vatva GIDC (assessed by the vulnerability NFPA matrix in HVRC report) and their effects on human system. The most advantageous point of this material was that it was indicating the readily available antidotes of these 16 chemicals and where these antidotes can be obtained by a layman. Adding to the antidotes information on the most hazardous chemicals, there was clear instructions on identification of symptoms (acute and chronic) and basic 'Do's and Don'ts of emergency planning in the case of chemical disaster involving these specific chemicals.
  • 7. Training and Capacity building of stakeholders : Training and capacity building was the integral part of the project cycle, in each stages, consultations, trainings and workshops were orgsnised for community groups, labours, technical staff and owners of the chemical units. For onsite preparedness in the industries 165 chemist, site supervisors and owners were oriented on the Industrial risk and preparedness. At 8 community locations focused groups discussions (FGD) on pertaining industrial risk and community response were done. 6 training programs covering 164 community members were conducted for orientation on industrial risk and response.
  • 8. Mock drill and outreach checking: Four major events are conducted wherein all major stakeholders from GIDC Vatva had been oriented of the project objectives. Two major trainings/workshops (May 22, 2015 and September 3, 2015) for the industrial unit managers along with one core group meeting with VIA and Gujarat Environment Services Co-op Society Limited who are responsible for running the effluent plant in GIDC, Vatva and assist the industrial units in assuring compliances related to pollution control and environment (July 7, 2015).

    The plan was put into test by conducting a table top simulation exercise on emergency management organized on April 23, 2016 at VIA. Key officials from AMC, Fire safety, Civil defence, LG hospital, Police, DISH along with owners and officials from key industries participated in the exercise. The exercise helps to review the IHMP and suggested correction. The departments ensure to provide necessary support to VIA and offsite locations for quick and effective response in industrial accidents. The final report under this project is submitted to GIDM for approval.

      The project team members from UNNATI are:
    • Kirit Parmar, Program Coordinator,
    • Zahir Shaikh, Program Officer,
    • Kanan Dave, Project Associate,
    • Hardik Kalal, Project Associate.
Capacity building programmes are regularly organised on DRR. Experiences are documented on post disaster health surveillance, school safety, community DRR Plan. A comparative analysis of post disaster recovery plans of various state governments has been prepared as a policy advocacy tool to promote owner driven reconstruction. These documents are available in our resource centre. We have also provided strategic support to Sahbhagi Shikshan Kendra (SSK), Lucknow for DIP-ECHO supported project on disaster preparedness implemented in Bahraich district of UP. Five sets of training modules on early warning, search and rescue, first aid, water and sanitation and social inclusion in DRR have been published by SSK in which we provided support in terms of conceptualisation and content systematisation.

We are very pleased to report that the disaster safe construction technology demonstrated under ‘Technology Park’ in Kutchch, Gujarat for people’s awareness building was selected as one of the good practices by Sphere India and EFICOR. This has been published among the 33 all India practices in a booklet entitled, ‘Turning the Tide – Good Practice in Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction’ by Sphere India and EFFICOR.

Few years back Owner Driven Reconstruction Collaborative had been formed as an advocacy group in which Unnati is a member. The group took a lead role in reconstruction of Koshi floods with an owner driven approach in collaboration with the Government of Bihar. In collaboration with NDMA a national guideline is under formulation on owner driven reconstruction. Unnati reviewed the state level guidelines prepared for post disaster recovery as part of the process of identification of facilitating factors to promote owner driven reconstruction. Several rounds of consultations have been held with the auspices of NDMA.
About the Pilot study and its methodology
A study was undertaken by UNNATI and Knowledge Works during June – December 2012 to understand the successes and limitations of Indira Awaas Yojana with regard to vulnerability of these houses to different natural hazards in the country. The following partners collaborated in the study at the state level:
  • Odisha: Five villages of Satyabadi block of Puri district in collaboration with CENDRET and SWAD to study resilience of IAY houses to cyclones and floods.
  • Uttar Pradesh: Five villages in Kaisarganj block of Bahrich district facilitated by Sahabhagi Sikshan Kendra (SSK) to understand resilience to floods caused by Ghagra River.
  • Tamilnadu: Select villages of Gingee, Kandamangalam, Vanur and Koliyanur blocks of Villupuram district in collaboration with Kalvi Kendra to capture the impact of Tusanami.
  • Uttarakhand: Five villages of Dunda and Bhatwadi blocks of Uttarkashi district in collaboration with HPSS to look at the possible impacts of landslides.
  • Gujarat: In collaboration with Swayam Sikshan Proyag, select villages of Jodia taluka of Jamnagar district to understand earthquake safety of IAY houses.
The findings of another independent study by the Centre for Sustainable Development in Himachal Pradesh were also integrated in the study. A total of about 600 houses were examined across the six states exposed to five different kinds of natural hazards.

Besides the field level data collection, state specific policy framework for housing delivery was also examined through meetings with concerned government departments. In some of the states, the Disaster Risk Management unit of UNDP provided valuable support to understand the housing safety guidelines and operational framework of IAY housing delivery.

The questionnaire used for collecting data included questions about the location of the house, process and material of construction, cost of construction etc. that Through discussions with government functionaries involved in housing delivery at the state, district and block levels, the study sought to understand the institutional framework and the process of delivery of state sponsored housing. This information served as a base for understanding the key bottlenecks experienced by rural families as well as the government machinery in achieving disaster resilient housing. The preliminary conclusions and recommendations from the state specific processes were discussed at the National Consultation organized in New Delhi on 21 December 2012 in collaboration with basin-South Asia Platform to advocate for integration of safety issues in IAY.

Learnings from all of these processes have been consolidated in this document which briefly captures state specific findings and articulates national level actions required to improve disaster resilience of IAY houses. Additional information on specific states is available in the state reports accompanying this document.
Disaster Resilience of Indira Awaas Yojana Houses » Download PDF
National Consultation on Safety of Houses Under Indira Awas Yojana in Disaster Prone Areas
Date: December 21, 2012

Venue: Development Alternative World Headquarters, B-32, TARA Crescent, Qutub Institutional Area, New Delhi.

National consultation on Safety of Houses under Indira Awas Yojana in Disaster Prone Areas was organised by Unnati with knowledge support from Knowledge Works. It was hosted by Development Alternatives. This was organised to share the results of a short pilot study in six states (Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Uttrakhand, Gujarat and Himachal Pradesh) covering of 100 households in each state to understand the disaster resilience of IAY houses.
28 participants from different national and state level technical institutions, NGOs, INGOs, financial institutions, insurance agencies and representative from Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) participated in the consultation. Key findings of the study on safety aspects were shared and in the respond the participants gives their inputs to improve the data analysis and presentation of the study. The important issues emerge from the study and consultation were to revised unit cost of the scheme for better material use and construction, enabling mechanisms to provide technical support and monitoring and linkage with the affordable insurance schemes to reduce the risk of houses. This effort will make at IAY houses more disaster resist and the beneficiaries using it will be safer in the context of specific hazards.
Evaluation of the project 'Strengthening Community Capacities in Rajasthan and Gujarat on Disaster Risk Reduction'
In May 2011, a team comprising of a disaster management and development planning specialist and a rural development specialist evaluated the project – 'Strengthening Community Capacities in Rajasthan and Gujarat on Disaster Risk Reduction'.

The objective was to identify the key areas of success and challenges faced and also to articulate the broad contours for future programming. The evaluation was expected to serve an overall purpose of reflection and learning on the relevance and appropriateness of the purpose and the congruence between the objective, outcome level results and the strategies. An event was organised on June 15, 2011 for sharing the report.

The team shared that the project has in its own small way initiated a legacy that simply cannot be discontinued at this juncture. There is enough evidence on the ground of the outcome of the project activities both in terms of processes related to community capacity development for DRR as well as in creation of tangible assets for families and their communities. The potential of many of these activities is visibly high, and was also reported by participating communities and partner NGOs. The team also recommended structured documentation and dissemination of the innovative practices and identifying other suitable knowledge products to be developed in relation to DRR in the context of drought and dalits as the targeted social group.
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